So the idea of entitlement shall be viewed from modern and wider perspective. To act other-wise is to subordinate truth to authority and it is historically evident that this habit of subordination ultimately makes men indifferently accept the orders of authority without regard to their substance. Many countries have incorporated the rights of man of the French Constitution or the rights of the Bill of Rights of 1689 or the rights contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It states: “No free man shall be taken or imprisoned or dispossessed or outlawed or banished or in any way destroyed, nor will we go upon him, nor send upon him except by the legal judgment of his peers or by the law of the land”. They are never equally valid  and the effort made by the State for their satisfaction must depend in large degree upon the results that effort involved. The theory of rights is the avenue to a creative view of politics, and it is therefore essential to define with some care the meaning they embody. I have no claim to receive without the attempt, at least, to pay for what I receive: F unction is thus implicit in right. Hence the narrow concept of rights, in modern day, is irrelevant. But from history we have received this lesson that balkanisation of a state (or nation-state) has never been able to solve the basic problems, rather it has aggravated the relations among different groups. The Preamble to the French Constitution of 1946 incorporated the rights of man. For example, an individual has right of the freedom of speech means that the individual has liberty to open his mouth and mind and if he does so he will face no problem. unified, single and coherent truth. From the progress of society and course of history it became crystal clear that certain rights are indeed fundamental or indispensable for the development of personality and inherent qualities of man. The implication of this right is individuals claim-right on the ground that the rights are indispensable for the development of personality and the authority is bound to provide such right. It must give him those conditions without which he cannot be that best self that he may be. As a part of the whole humanity every human being is entitled to certain rights and no authority under the sun can deprive him of these basic rights. A legal theory of rights will tell us what in fact the character of a State is it will not tell us, save by the judgment we express upon some particular State, whether the rights there recognized are the rights which need recognition. It is easy, in such a background, to take the step urged upon us by Hobbes and Bentham and to define rights as claims recognized by the State. For such an order cannot be permanent in a world which science changes at a pace so rapid as we have come to expect. Our method of judging its character lies, above all, in the contribution that it University of Political Science These rights are such in nature that they have obliterated the differences of geographical boundaries, language, race and religion. (6) For the enforcement of rights law is essential. But the real meaning of our experience is known only to ourselves. The claims that we must recognize are those which, in the light of history, involve , disaster When they are unfulfilled. I may pay my debt to the State by being a bricklayer or an artist, or a mathematician. Nature of Political Science is a social science concerned with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. There is no golden age to which we may seek to return. Others may glimpse our sense of failure and success. Thirdly, T. H. Green defines rights in the light of idealism since he was the doyen of English idealist philosophy. It is clear, in such a view, that the citizen has claims upon the State. My duty is to act as though it ought to be recognized. Naturally the intervention of state appears to be inevitable for the realisation of rights, but this need not be the case. Even the rights contemplated by Locke or Jefferson have found place in human rights. There is a third problem. It does not give any emphasis on the recognition aspect which is performed by the state. The Nature Of Rights: Every State is known by the rights that it maintains. Human rights have also a slight relationship with the idea of religion or God. It is justified in the sense that when one claims rights there shall be sufficient justification behind the claims and, at the same time, the claims should be recognised. The Bill of Rights sought to protect certain basic rights for the common people. This does not mean the guarantee that .his best self will be attained. They also thought that it was the duty of state to protect rights or to make arrangements for the protection of the rights. In this way concept of rights came to be associated with political theory because state or government was the part of politics. The State, therefore, is not, at least for political philosophy, simply a sovereign organization with the power to get its will obeyed. 6. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Sooner or later it will provoke the dissent of those whose nature is frustrated by its policy. The nature of political science is that it is a social science. Political science as a subject of study is still a growing and developing field. All men of all countries have been created by the same creator and for that very reason there shall not be any distinction among men on the ground of race, religion etc. Challenges the widely held view that the concept of rights is alien to Aristotle, arguing that his theory of justice supports claims of individual rights, which are political and based in nature. It is a science My rights are powers conferred that I may, with others strive for the attainment of that common end. It is denying that which invests its power with moral authority. For example, the revolutionaries of American Revolution and French Revolution demanded that they were fighting for the general rights of general public. This, the black people said, was their right which must be recognised by the U.S. government and the government must allow them to cultivate this separate culture or civilisation. 3. The State has rights against me. That is the case, for example, upon which a democratic polity is most securely founded. There is a subtle difference between rights in general sense and the fundamental rights. When we say that a man has the right to bestow his possessions as he will, we state a fact but we do not thereby determine whether he ought to have that right When we say that a deaf mute has the right to marry, we mean that no church and no registrar can refuse, in proper circumstances, the performance of the necessary ceremonial but we do not mean that we think he ought to have the right. This rights, law and state are all interlinked. For there are desires, as to murder, for example, which cannot be grounded in rights. Antagonism to the demands of authority will always be the exception in history but those demands will win their way from inert acceptance rather than active consent unless, over a period of time, they offer service to the theoretic purpose of the State. It must observe his rights. For example, Locke’s right to life, liberty and property or Jefferson’s life, liberty and pursuit of happiness are treated as parts of human rights. The citizen, that is to say, just because he is a citizen, has the duty of scrutinising both the motive and the character of governmental acts. Answer:Nature of Political Science is a social science concerned with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems … It means that Individuals will enjoy rights but at the same time the state should do for the realisation of welfare objectives. It cannot set bounds to those upon whom the enjoyment of the right is to be conferred. For, obviously, no State would long survive in which the law sought room to respond to the homicidal impulse of its members. Political science, occasionally called politology, is a discipline of social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, associated constitutions and political behavior.. The human rights are universal but not the human beings. Required fields are marked *. The Bill of Rights enacted by the British Parliament was primarily concerned with the curtailment of royal prerogatives and asserting the right of legislature. Therefore, time, place, agreement and authority are not the determining factors of the character of natural rights. The perception within political science of natural science as unified and a ‘whole’ paradoxically (in that the positivism of political ‘science’ should operate in accordance to a relativist position) adheres to the Kuhnian view of ‘normal science’. To provide for me the conditions which enable me to be my best self is to oblige me, at the same time, to seek to be my best self. I must recognize the civic equation of which I am part, or forfeit my citizenship. Rather both are rising. We admit that every group has the right to lead life according to its separate identity. Rights, in this sense, are correlative to duties or functions. With the rise of the complexities of social structure, its administration and the relation between individuals and state, rights ultimately became integral parts of political theory and prime concern of the state. The vast majority of the population were not citizens and had no rights. Human rights activists throughout the world have focused their eagle’s eye on the realisation of human rights. The words fundamental rights are quite well known and after the Second World War these two words have received wide publicity. It must assume, at some point in its policy, a sufficient identity of nature in men to secure identity of response. A decision was taken that a civil authority was to be set up whose, inter alia, function would be to take steps for the protection of the natural rights. For the State, at any given moment, means a body of men and women in possession of actual power and their judgment of the rights that ought to be recognized maybe mistaken. Seeley: “Political Science investigates the Phenomena of Government as Political Economy deals with wealth. It is so people expect them for their betterment. Any attempt at the division of society into “ natural ” classes with “ natural ” functions is bound to break down. The concept of human rights, some well-known scholars assert, owes a lot for its origin to the Christianity because Christianity propagated that God is the creator of all human beings and so all of them must enjoy rights. They are historical in the sense that, at some given period and place, they are demanded by the character of its civilization and they are natural in the sense that, under those same limitations, the facts demand their recognition. Latour uses Plato's metaphor of "the cave" to describe the current role of nature and science in separating facts from values which is the role of politics and non-scientists. Naturally, any attempt to deprive man of his share to rights is immoral. These enable them to take an active part in the political process. Although political science overlaps considerably with political … In the city-states only a handful of persons were fortunate to be citizens and they enjoyed certain privileges which were rights. The Nature Of Rights: Every State is known by the rights that it maintains. Few theories have done greater harm to philosophy, or more violence to the facts they seek to summaries, than the notion that they represent the recovery of a lost inheritance. I may I probably shall-provoke hopeless defeat, or a victory which is purchased only at a terrible price. Political Science majors at Suffolk University in Boston first take courses that boost their understanding of domestic and international politics. The main function of the authority of civil society is to protect the rights. They specify the minimum conditions for human dignity and a tolerable life. 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